In England, the season immediately before Lent was called Shrovetide. A time for confessing sins (“shriving”), it had fewer festivities than the Continental Carnivals. Today, Shrove Tuesday is celebrated as Pancake Day, but little else of the Lent-related Shrovetide survived the 16th-century English Reformation. The Shrovetide Carnival in the United Kingdom is celebrated in Cowes and East Cowes on the Isle of Wight.
In the late 18th century, the “cordões” (literally “cords”, laces or strings in Portuguese) combined with the “dança do coco” (literally “coconut dance” an Afro-Brazilian dance troupe form) were introduced in Rio de Janeiro. These were pageant groups that paraded through city avenues performing on instruments and dancing.
Today they are known as Carnaval blocos , consisting of a group of people who dress in costumes or special T-shirts with themes and/or logos. Blocos are generally associated with particular neighbourhoods; they include both a percussion or music group and an entourage of revelers. They eventually became the “fathers” of what everyone today knows as the famous and internationally renowned samba-schools in Brazil. Samba-schools (not only in Rio de Janeiro, but in São Paulo and several other cities) are the cultural epicenter of the Brazilian carnival, in terms of the “parading style”. GRES Estação Primeira de Mangueira Samba-School, represented by Cartola, and Estácio de Sá samba School, represented by Ismael Silva, were the other 2 contestants.
Eventually, “Oswaldo Cruz” became Portela Samba School, the greatest winner of Rio’s Carnival with 22 Titles. Carnival is a Western Christian festive season that occurs before the liturgical season of Lent.
For almost five centuries, local Greek communities throughout Istanbul celebrated Carnival with weeks of bawdy parades, lavish balls, and street parties. Baklahorani took place on Shrove Monday, the last day of the carnival season. The event was led by the Greek Orthodox community, but the celebrations were public and inter-communal.
For example, Pancakes, donuts, and other desserts were prepared and eaten for a final time. During Lent, animal products are eaten less, and individuals have the ability to make a Lenten sacrifice, thus giving up a certain object or activity of desire. The first festivals in Rio de Janeiro were called entrudo, during which locals danced through the streets in colorful costumes, throwing mud, flour and various suspect liquids at one another. In the 19th century Carnaval meant attending a lavish masked ball or participating in the orderly and rather vapid European-style parade. Rio’s poor citizens, bored by the finery but eager to participate in a celebration, began holding their own parades, dancing through the streets to African-based rhythms. It was music full of African flavors, brought to the city by former slaves and their descendants – a sound that would forever more be associated with Carnaval.
The main events typically occur during February or early March, during the period historically known as Shrovetide (or Pre-Lent). Carnival typically involves public celebrations, including events such as parades, public street parties and other entertainments, combining some elements of a circus. Elaborate costumes and masks allow people to set aside their everyday individuality and experience a heightened sense of social unity. Participants often indulge in excessive consumption of alcohol, meat, and other foods that will be forgone during upcoming Lent. Traditionally, butter, milk, and other animal products were not consumed “excessively”, rather, their stock was fully consumed as to reduce waste. This festival is known for being a time of great indulgence before Lent , with drinking, overeating, and various other activities of indulgence being performed.